In 1994, five unnamed civilian contractors and the widows of contractors Walter Kasza and Robert Frost sued the Air Force and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. They alleged that they had been present when large quantities of unknown chemicals had been burned in open pits and trenches at Groom. Rutgers University biochemists analyzed biopsies from the complainants and found high levels of dioxin, dibenzofuran, and trichloroethylene in their body fat. The complainants alleged that they had sustained skin, liver, and respiratory injuries due to their work at Groom and that this had contributed to the deaths of Frost and Kasza. The suit sought compensation for the injuries, claiming that the Air Force had illegally handled toxic materials and that the EPA had failed in its duty to enforce the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which governs the handling of dangerous materials. They also sought detailed information about the chemicals, hoping that this would facilitate the medical treatment of survivors. Congressman Lee H. Hamilton, former chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, told 60 Minutes reporter Lesley Stahl, "The Air Force is classifying all information about Area 51 in order to protect themselves from a lawsuit."
The government invoked the State Secrets Privilege and petitioned U.S. District Judge Philip Pro to disallow disclosure of classified documents or examination of secret witnesses, claiming that this would expose classified information and threaten national security. Judge Pro rejected the government's argument, so President Bill Clinton issued a Presidential Determination exempting what it called "the Air Force's Operating Location Near Groom Lake, Nevada" from environmental disclosure laws. Consequently, Pro dismissed the suit due to lack of evidence. Turley appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit on the grounds that the government was abusing its power to classify material. Secretary of the Air Force Sheila E. Widnall filed a brief which stated that disclosures of the materials present in the air and water near Groom "can reveal military operational capabilities or the nature and scope of classified operations." The Ninth Circuit rejected Turley's appeal and the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear it, putting an end to the complainants' case.
The President annually issues a determination continuing the Groom exception which is the only formal recognition that the government has ever given that Groom Lake is more than simply another part of the Nellis complex. An unclassified memo on the safe handling of F-117 Nighthawk material was posted on an Air Force web site in 2005. This discussed the same materials for which the complainants had requested information, which the government had claimed was classified. The memo was removed shortly after journalists became aware of it.
This dataset includes transcripts of 51 semi-structured interviews from a four-site qualitative study; 33 documents could not be de-identified and available only upon request from PI. All participants gave verbal consent before participating in a semi-structured interview whose domains included (1) contextual information about the participant and hospice organization; (2) processes and practices of eliciting and documenting preferences for care among hospice enrollees; and (3) professional opinions on eliciting/ documenting preferences in the context of the hospice philosophy, including changes in practices over time.
All data were collected by the depositor (a PhD qualitative researcher) during a two-day site visit to each of four non-profit, community-based hospices affiliated with the Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC), between April and September 2016. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants. All interviews were digitally recorded. Audio recordings of interviews were transcribed by a professional transcription service and reviewed for accuracy. All data were converted to electronic format, then uploaded to a qualitative data analysis software program: Atlas.ti, version 8. Any identifying information was redacted by deleting audio-recorded portions of the tapes, deleting words from the transcript, or blacking out the words in hand-written notes. Member checking was used to validate and establish credibility of the findings by returning transcripts to the participant for review and clarification, and presenting preliminary findings to a diverse audience of hospice and palliative care researcher-clinicians, to solicit views and interpretations of the credibility of the findings. Other documents were also collected (brochures, internal training materials), but cannot be redacted and therefore are not being shared publicly.
Obtain and review marketing and advertising materials (including signs or other displays), prescreened solicitations, and the criteria used to determine the potential recipients of the particular solicitations, scripts, and interview forms used for pre-application interviews and for taking applications, and rate sheets and product information used in discussing available types of credit with applicants. Conduct loan agent interviews to determine whether they show an understanding of the regulatory requirements.
Obtain and review application forms (including scripts for telephone applications and screen shots of online applications), disclosures, a sample of loan files,  creditor policies and procedures and audits pertaining to the taking of applications, and training materials. Conduct loan officer interviews to determine whether they show an understanding of the regulatory requirements and that policies and procedures are consistently applied.
Obtain and review policies and procedures, training materials, a sample of loan files, audits pertaining to evaluating, and pricing applications for credit (including, but not limited to those regarding loan servicing, modifications, collections, and loss mitigation), and information regarding statistical models used in credit evaluations. Conduct loan underwriter interviews to determine whether they show an understanding of the regulatory requirements and that policies and procedures are consistently applied.
Obtain and review policies and procedures, training materials, a sample of loan files, closing instructions on a sample of loans, and audits pertaining to extensions of credit (including, but not limited to signature requirements and account management). Conduct loan officer and closing agent interviews to determine whether they show an understanding of the regulatory requirements and that policies and procedures are consistently applied.
Obtain and review policies and procedures, training materials, a sample of loan files, and audits pertaining to notifications (including, but not limited to those that pertain to prequalification and preapproval processes, incomplete applications, counteroffers, loan modifications, and those that apply when there are third parties or multiple creditors). Conduct loan officer interviews to determine whether they show an understanding of the regulatory requirements and that policies and procedures are consistently applied.
Obtain and review policies and procedures, training materials, and audits pertaining to the designation of accounts on furnishing them to credit reporting agencies, as well as a sample of information reported to the credit reporting agencies.
Obtain and review policies and procedures, training materials, audits, a sample of loan files, relevant third-party contracts, and other records required to be retained (e.g., information relating to prescreened offers of credit and self-tests) that pertain to record retention (including but not limited to record retention schedules, retention of documents relating to prescreened offers of credit, and retention of documents relating to any self- tests). Inquire into whether there is any enforcement action or investigation involving the creditor.
Obtain and review policies and procedures, training materials, a sample of loan files, quality control reports, and audits pertaining to information gathered for monitoring. Conduct loan officer interviews to determine whether they show an understanding of the regulatory requirements and that policies and procedures are consistently applied. 59ce067264